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In Memoriam: Katherine Hagedorn, Divine utterances: The performance of Afro-Cuban santería (2001)

Cultural production, daily life, music, Religion, Tales from the field No Comments »


Hagedorn cover  As many scholars of contemporary Cuba have learned to their shock and grief, we have recently lost one of our dearest colleagues, Katherine Hagedorn.  While a more comprehensive memorial to her life and work is available here, suffice it to say that Katherine was not only a creative, honest, and insightful scholar, but also an extraordinarily generous being, and we are left much diminished by her absence and with deepest sympathies for her family.  Having recently re-read her book as my own personal memorial to Katherine, I remembered all over how delightful it was to read in the first place, and how many of her insights rang true ethnographically even to someone not particularly well versed in either ethnomusicology or Cuban religious practices.  With that in mind, I write this post to recommend that you either take the time to read, or re-read, this rich text, Divine utterances: The performance of Afro-Cuban santería.  It will, I promise, be time well spent.



From Five to Seven, Redux

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, media, Tales from the field 8 Comments »

From Five to Seven was the greatest radio show in 1990s Havana, broadcasting every day, between five and seven and between 1994 and 1999, on Radio Taino. That is the reason why I did a lot of my ethnographic fieldwork there!

It was devoted to Latin music broadly conceived, but as timba grew, the show became its main showcase. Major bands like Manolin El Medico de la Salsa, Manolito (el del Trabuco), Bamboleo and others became BIG because of this show.  At times it reached the biggest audience for all radio shows in the city of Havana, after Radio Reloj’s morning news and Radio Progreso’s mid-morning soap opera. From Five to Seven sounded commercial, it included commercial advertisements and played timba music alongside classic salsa (e.g. Fania) as well as the latest in merengue, cumbia and all sort of fusion styles from the Spanish Caribbean and North America. The program ended in late 1999. The program launched young and unknown voices to international fame: some of the hosts that achieved recognition in the show went on to work on radio and television in Europe and the United States, like Ismael Calá, who’s now a famous anchor person at CNN, in the United States.

Now From Five to Seven is back! and today is its first day on the air, at five o’clock central time (6pm Eastern, 3pm Pacific). Its director Juan Cañizares has recuperated the project although not in Havana but in Cancun. His plan is to lure to it some of those who worked with him in Cuba, and Karla is already on board. The show broadcasts daily on Radio Turquesa FM, in Cancun and the entire state of Quintana Roo, and on the internet, playing a lot of Cuban timba and reggeaton. I am hearing a lot of Charanga Habanera, Gente de Zona, Manolito y Su Trabuco, both their latest releases and their by-now classical songs. Along with the music, the fabulous voice of Karla, and the same super arriba energy. El Exitazo Musical del Caribe!!!

Felicidades Juan y Karla!!

HERE you can hear the program promo.

And here one of the songs that were played today, Mentiras by Manolito Simonet:

Hair Salons and Barber Shops Going Coop (Updated)

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, By Grete Viddal, News and Views, Tales from the field 2 Comments »

Vedado (Havana) state-owned hair salon. ©AHR

According to recent news, selected hair salons and barber shops in Havana are undergoing an experiment in management and administration. Unlike in the 1990s, these are not self-employed professionals who are allowed to run small businesses out of their home. These are tiny state shops (sitting three max) that are being turned to their employees who then run them autonomously. They must pay a rent (in hard currency) to the state as well as taxes, and obtain their supplies on their own, presumably at free market prices. They can then set prices according to supply and demand. Apparently, participation in this pilot program has been voluntary, and workers who did not want to be autonomous have been able to switch jobs with those who did at other salons. You can read a detailed account in this report of the Spanish news agency EFE.

Up until now (and still in most of the island) the choices were a state-run hair salon or a self-employed hair dresser. The state salon had fixed prices in Cuban pesos, while the independent professional was free to set prices and has to pay income taxes. In practical terms, however, the state shops lacked supplies, which the employees then obtained on their own and charged customers for under the table. While state hair salons and barber shops were technically inexpensive, the were really not, as one had to purchase products and services directly from the employees at bargained prices. My hunch is that this new system is designed to address (and tax) a de facto situation.

In Havana, this pilot project only affects a handful of Salons in two neighborhoods, none of which can handle more than three clients at a time. On the other extreme of the island, in Santiago de Cuba, it is doubtful that many peluqueros will sign up for this experiment, should it be an option there some time soon. According to Grete Viddal’s own hair stylist and salon owner Raúl, the cost of “cooperativizing” is prohibitive anywhere but in Havana. In response to Grete’s inquiry, Raul said that if the potential independent contractors of a salon will have to pay about 1000 MN per chair, this is a lot of money in Santiago – even if this covers the costs of doing business, the chair, electricity, etc. Raul says hairdressers wouldn’t be able to charge enough for their haircuts to cover expenses. Grete’s assessment is that “many services (they do manicures, pedicures, waxing, all manner of hair coloring and straightening, and more) at Quisqueya, the big salon in Calle Enramadas, the main shopping street of Santiago, cost a peso, two, three. Many haircuts (cost of haircuts depends on length of your hair) less than 5 pesos MN. If you have to pay 1000 MN a month, that’s a LOT of haircuts before you begin to make a profit!”

Below, see a picture of the entrepreneurial Raúl – a self-employed hair dresser- working on his most simpática client a few weeks ago.

© Grete Viddal

Thanks to A. Armengol for the news’ heads up.

A Vodú Party for the Gods

By Grete Viddal, Cuba Haiti, Religion, Tales from the field 6 Comments »

I went up a mountain, near Santiago, to houngan Pablo’s party for the gods. He lives in a place called Pilon del Cauto, near the river Cauto, about two or three (depending on road conditions) hours from Santiago, accessible by jeep, truck, or legs.

Guests arrived, some carrying a borrowed mattress to spend the night…

Pablo has a tonnel or space for ceremonies and parties. He has rented a sound system, and folks dance. Also there is much buying of goats: goat prices are based on weight. At the designated space, there is a  “mangemort” or altar table for the dead and another table for the “mangebla” or “mesa blanca” (called a manje blan in Haiti), with cakes and treats for the “sweet” spirits.

The white goat for the “mesa blanca” ceremony is consecrated with perfume and herbs. Tato and Pablo supervise the consecration of the fowl. Tato sprinkles the birds with a mix or holy water, perfume, herbs…

Houngan Pablo Milanes, mounted by the spirit Gran Bwa, sacrifices the goat. His son, behind, helps hold the animal steady. Gran Bwa then blesses congregants, while he is sitting on the body of the goat. He then dances the merenge with one of his assistants… Finally the goat is butchered and the meat readied for a night time feast…

NOTE on the usage of the term VODÚ: In the Cuban context the correct spelling for this religious practice is “vodú.”  (The Dominican spelling is often Vudu, in scholarly books in English it is Vodou. In French is Vaudoux. When writing about folk religion in the U.S. South, scholars sometimes term it “hoodoo.” Voodoo is an outdated and pejorative way to refer to Haitian spirituality.

La Esquina de 23 y G

By Matthew J. Reilly, Tales from the field, urban life, youth cultures 1 Comment »

© Jorge Luis Baños

By 11pm on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday nights this park is full of hundreds, and at times thousands, of young people. These are boys and girls, and men and women, whose ages range from 14 to 35 years.  They are students at university or local secondary schools, some are unemployed, some work for the state, and others work informally or illegally.  Overwhelmingly they are white or light skinned.  This is a very fluid space with all sorts of people coming and going.  It is a rendezvous point, a place where people get together before or after they go off to one of the many clubs, restaurants, or cafés that populate the area.  This is the place to meet, the place to see and be seen- it is a nocturnal youthscape.

© Jorge Luis Baños© Jorge Luis Baños

Haitian Heritage Festival in Primero de Enero (Ciego de Avila)

By Grete Viddal, Cuba Haiti, Tales from the field 2 Comments »

This festival took place last weekend (March 27-28, 2010). The following images document a “vodu” ceremony that was performed within the festival context. (Text and photographs by Grete Viddal)

Cuban houngan Tomas Pol was soon mounted by “Towo” the spirit of the bull. However, Towo receives the sacrifice of a pig. In Cuba it is illegal, and too costly, to kill a bull, as would be traditional in Haiti…

The drummers Leonardo “Lionel” Martinez and his son accompany the ceremony. They are from Caidije in Camaguey province. Lionel has been to Haiti three times!

Everyone present lights a candle which is left at the altar, along with rum, plantains, an egg, water, sweet bread, root vegetables…

Subsequently Towo rides the verraco or uncut male pig, which will be later killed and prepared under the supervision of Hatian-born Benecio (with the hat, bottom picture)

Cuba Haiti: Musical Dialogues (III). Bonito Patuá

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, By Grete Viddal, Cuba Haiti, Tales from the field 1 Comment »

Bonito Patuá is a folkloric ensemble devoted to the performance of Hatian traditional dances. The group was founded in 1960, it is currently based in Camagüey, and has twenty-five members. You can see a video recording of a street performance of theirs during last year’s Festival del Caribe, in Santiago, HERE. Grete Viddal photographed them last weekend (March 27-28, 2010) during the Haitian Heritage Festival held in the town of Primero de Enero, in Ciego de Avila province.

all pics © by Grete Viddal

España and Coppelia: Santiago’s Hot Spots

By Grete Viddal, Tales from the field 19 Comments »

(Coppelia Line, Photo by GV, 2010)

Valentine¹s Day in Santiago de Cuba

Its a breezy Sunday, less hot than usual, so I decide to go for a walk. Heading down Avenida Garzon I see lines snaking down sidewalks. All are clustered in front all the new moneda nacional restaurants. There is a new head of the communist party in the province of Santiago: Lazaro Ésposito, and changes are afoot. Ésposito was brought in from a successful stint in nearby Bayamo province to modernize Santiago, a city known for its juicy music, traditional neighborhood carnival associations, old-style Caribbean red-tiled-roof architecture, and antiquated water mains, lousy municipal services, food shortages, annoying power outages, and provincial backwater status. Starting in September, he presided over the opening of a series of new restaurants, cafeterias, and food vending carts. All sell in moneda nacional, the Cuban peso. Valentine¹s Day gave folks an reason to try the new restaurants, and long lines ensued. I squeezed thru crowds and peeked into several of the gleaming new establishments. White tablecloths, real china, nice plastic flower centerpieces. All this and a fish dinner for only 25 pesos (a little more than one US dollar)? Wow, Santiago is on the up and up! Families and couples line the sidewalks as moms, wives, and girlfriends are feted on this special day of San Valentin. Ambulatory sellers of fabric roses encased in plastic bubbles and little heart pins and teddy bear key chains are doing brisk business. Everybody is dressed up. Ironed and pressed. The women navigate broken pavement in high heels, waving fingers with mini-rhinestone manicures. Cologne and hair oil wafts from the men. Many are wearing yellow and white, not the pink or red we might think of as “valentine colors” in the US. Two couples in line have even pattern-coordinated their outfits. One woman has a white top and bright yellow jeans, her friend white capri pants and a yellow blouse. Their men also sport the yellow & white theme. In the Afro-Cuban religion Santería (also called Regla de Ocha), the divinity of love, river waters, honey, romance and flirtation is named Oshun and her color is yellow or gold. Maybe in Cuba, Valentine¹s Day is more yellow than pink due to the influence of the African gods.

One of the new restaurants, named España, has an especially long line and a few women in very high heels are actually sitting on the curb in front. Cubans almost never do this. The curb, the gutter, sidewalks, streets, and floors in general are considered “dirty.” Parks and plazas have benches. If they are full, people stand. Children are admonished not to run barefoot. Rarely do folks flop on lawns or plant their behinds on a curb. The beach is about the only place where you¹ll see anything other than the soles of Cuban¹s shoes in contact with the ground. Cubans are used to waiting in lines. For the bus. For bread. At the bank. To see the municipal coordinator of such-and-such. On this Sunday coinciding with the day of San Valentin, I calculate the waitlist to get a table at España must be more than an hour to force the ladies to desperate measures – sitting on the curb in their stepping-out attire. One fellow has actually made his lady a little temporary stool out of three empty rum bottles and a stout piece of cardboard. Valentine’s was made for Cuban caballerosidad, no?

(España Restaurant, photo by GV, 2010)

Tales from “the field.” Going to the Gym in Santiago de Cuba

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, By Grete Viddal, Tales from the field No Comments »

With this post we inaugurate a new section in EthnoCuba, devoted to notes, pics and reports from that place we pompously call “the field”. I wanted to translate it into Spanish, but it sounds a  bit insulting if we are not talking about “el campo – campo” or “el puro campo”. Anything less than that should not be called “el campo”.  For now, we’ll leave it in English.

This post also -and hopefully- inaugurates the periodical contribution to this young blog of our colleague Grete Viddal, PhD candidate at Harvard University’s Department of African and African-American Studies (MA in anthropology), currently in Santiago.

Grete just joined a private gym, popular with the well-to-do local population. She reports that the gym is reasonably priced, (by Cuban standards), although “not cheap-cheap:” While a drop-in class there costs 5 pesos, it costs only 1 at the two state-run gyms located downtown. However the latter are not so well furnished.  This private gym also offers a monthly membership, which gives daily access to the weight machines (all hand made) as well as to aerobic classes.

I nagged Grete to get some pictures to share with us. See images below  (all pictures by Grete Viddal).


By contrast, check out the image of laziness that a 1968 pamphlet printed in Santiago de Cuba, called El Anti-Lumpen, offered of its inhabitants. Today, in El Archivo de Connie.

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