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Two new volumes at the intersection of Cuban history and ethnography, fall 2013

By Paul Ryer, History, history of anthropology, Religion, Space & Place No Comments »

shade-grown_slaveryTwo recently published books about the Cuban past may be of interest to ethnographers of Cuba, although in very different ways.  The first, Shade-Grown Slavery: The Lives of Slaves on Coffee Plantations in Cuba, by Luis Pérez, Jr.’s student, historian William C. Van Norman, Jr., comes from Vanderbilt University Press.  By focusing on coffee, rather than sugar, plantations, as well as in siting the research in and around Matanzas, I found the perspective of the book to bring a welcome contrast to more conventional reads of Cuban history through the lens of the production of sugar.  This is also a straightforward historiographical work, lucid, informative and without the theoretical angst of many of us contemporary cultural theorists.  cooking of history

The second volume, The Cooking of History: How Not to Study Afro-Cuba Religion, by Stephan Palmié, University of Chicago Press, is, predictably, a slower read, but well worth the effort.  Taking on the anthropological production of knowledge about Cuban religious practice, from Ortiz onward, the volume challenges us anthropologists to rethink just what we do, and why.  (In this sense, I am reminded of David Scott’s critique of the external production of narratives about the Caribbean past in his classic “That event, this memory”, 1991, Diaspora 1:3, but of course, the metaphor of “cooking” is in part a nod to Sidney Mintz).  Most welcome, for me, is a sense of reflexivity about the object of study, much more pronounced than in Palmié’s earlier work.  Thus for instance, while I am still leery of the use of the term “Afro-Cuban” due to the way so many non-Cuban scholars carelessly conflate it as both a classification of cultural practices and a category for persons (who sometimes resent being so labelled), here Palmié is careful to indicate his own doubts about the adequacy of such a label–the introduction title actually puts “Afro,” “Cuban,” and “Religion” all in quotes.  Most immediately, then, the book speaks to others studying Cuban religious practices, and indeed, questions the nature of “anthropology” as well, in a sophisticated yet readable way.  One thing I’d like to have seen more of is consideration of the way present-day Protestant and evangelical religious movements in Cuba fit into the picture Palmié is drawing–in the sense Trouillot described of the “present in the past.”  And while Fidel Castro’s famous description of Cuba as “un país latinoafricano” is deftly brought into the story (p. 85), surely much more thinking could be done about the relation between a distinctive revolutionary African-Cuban present and contructions of an African past.  But again, this is a text worth wrestling with, probably more at the graduate/professional level than for most undergraduate classes, and I’d love to hear other colleagues’ takes on it.

New book: Carlos Aldama’s Life in Batá by Umi Vaughan and Carlos Aldama, Indiana University Press

History, music, new book, Religion, traditions and folklore No Comments »
UPDATE: It is a pleasure to announce that Carlos Aldama’s Life in Batá: Cuba, Diaspora, and the Drum, by anthropologist Umi Vaughan and Carlos Aldama, is now available from Indiana University Press, in both paper and hardback.  It seems that there may also be a significant discount available, so in a nice change, this may actually be affordable!  As always, please feel free to send comments and reviews, and congratulations to Umi!

From the publisher’s description:

Batá identifies both the two-headed, hourglass-shaped drum of the Yoruba people and the culture and style of drumming, singing, and dancing associated with it. This book recounts the life story of Carlos Aldama, one of the masters of the batá drum, and through that story traces the history of batá culture as it traveled from Africa to Cuba and then to the United States. For the enslaved Yoruba, batá rhythms helped sustain the religious and cultural practices of a people that had been torn from its roots. Aldama, as guardian of Afro-Cuban music and as a Santería priest, maintains the link with this tradition forged through his mentor Jesus Pérez (Oba Ilu), who was himself the connection to the preserved oral heritage of the older generation. By sharing his stories, Aldama and his student Umi Vaughan bring to light the techniques and principles of batá in all its aspects and document the tensions of maintaining a tradition between generations and worlds, old and new. The book includes rare photographs and access to downloadable audio tracks.

 

Activating The Past—event and edited volume

By Paul Ryer, History, new book No Comments »

Now that I am wrapping up teaching–over 1,000 students this year!–what better way to get back to scholarly work than to attend the launch of a volume showcasing Cuba and providing the opportunity to meet, or catch up with, contributors and editors.

The book, Activating The Past: Historical Memory in the Black Atlantic World, Cambridge Scholars Press, 2010, is edited by Andrew Apter and Robin Derby.  Perhaps because it is not yet available in paper, it may not be familiar to some readers, but it should be, since many of the essays prominently place Cuban history and ethnography within an inter-Atlantic conversation.  Thus, for instance, the first chapter, by Stephan Palmié: “Ekpe/Abakuá in Middle Passage: Time, Space and Units of Analysis in African American Historical Anthropology.”  There are also Cuba-centered chapters by art historian  Judith Bettelheim, “Espiritismo Altars in Puerto Rico and Cuba: The Indian and the Congo,” and Carrie Viarnes, “Muñecas and Memoryscapes: Negotiating Identity and History in Cuban Espiritismo.”  Surely, however, the broader value of the volume is in (re)emplacing Cuba within wider currents, histories, and movements.

As an event, the launch (at UCLA’s African Studies Center) provided an opportunity to speak with Professors Apter and Derby, as well as Judith Bettelheim and several other contributors.  I was particularly struck by Professor Bettelheim’s description of the way in which her chapter built from one particularly startling archived photograph (see Activating The Past, p. 299), circa 1860, in which two performers are wearing feathered headdresses.  Clearly, art historians are very, very skilled at image analysis, and perhaps we ethnographers would be well advised to study those methods or collaborate with art historians in some contexts.  In any case, get your library to order this book, and take a look at it.

 

September 11: Catalonia and Cuba

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, History 3 Comments »

Today September 11 is Catalonia’s National Holiday, commemorating the fall of Barcelona in 1714. This is Catalonia’s pro-independence flag, the estelada, designed in 1904 and waved at the proclamation of the short-lived Catalan independence in 1931- today a flag still used by Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (with variations in color, it is also the flag of the independentist group Terra Lliure).

Its similarity with the Cuban flag is no coincidence.  It was designed by Catalan nationalists in Cuba after its independence in 1902, and modeled, of course, after the Cuban flag  See Creixell (1984) for a full account.

I thank Cesar Beltran for pointing at this morphological similarity.

Gloria Rolando on the 1912 Massacre

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, Cinema, History, Race 3 Comments »

Gloria Rolando just visited UNC where she spoke about her work and screened selections of her three-part documentary on the 1912 massacre of the Party of the Independents of Color. The film seeks to uncover memories of this event through interviews with historians and communities throughout Cuba. You can read more about it HERE.

Thanks to Lisa Knauer for this information.

The Garrote Vil and the Minister of Executions

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, History 5 Comments »

Execution by Garrote Vil. Cuba 1880 (Photo: Library of Congress)

The Garrote Vil or “strangling machine” was the preferred method of execution used in Spain and its colonies since 1832. In Cuba,  the iron collar that strangled the convict was aided by a sharp spike which pierced the person’s spinal cord at the neck’s base. The system fell out of favor in 1911, when president Gómez pledged to modernize the prison system up to U.S. standards, build new prisons, and introduce a humane treatment of Cuba’s unfortunates that included replacing the garrote by the American electric chair, and tattoo “a number of identification upon the body of those serving long prison terms.” In 1924, however, the ruthless president Machado reintroduced the garrote.

On July 9, 1926, for the first time in twenty years, Salvatore Aguilera, from Sagua de Tanamo (in today’s Holguin province) was the first to be garroted. He was sentenced in a Santiago court for allegedly assassinating his own aunt.  His executioner would be Francisco de Paula Romero, another convict serving a murder sentence in Havana, on the other side of the island. Romero volunteered for the job in exchange for 16 pieces of gold and several months off his sentence. He was named “Minister of Executions”  and moved to an individual cell adjacent to the death chamber. A few days before Aguilera’s execution was to be carried out, Romero, the garrote and a guard were put on a train and traversed the island.

This first execution did not go altogether smoothly. The convict, Mr. Aguilera, became hysterical and needed to be sedated and dragged from his cell to the death chamber.  There, to accompany him, were only his spiritual adviser, the official witnesses, two physicians, the executioner Francisco de Paula Romero, and his assistant, Frank Davis, a 59 year-old Negro veteran of the Spanish-American war,  also a convict, serving a two-year sentence for robbery. Before Aguilera took his sit in the garrote, his feet were tied up and he was allowed to smoke a cigar, given to him by another prisoner. As he was giving his last puffs, he looked with disgust at the assistant executioner and expressed his disappointment at him. Davis had been a fellow inmate of his for a whole year, and now he showed no emotion at assisting in his execution.  Then, while Romero placed the garrote collar around his neck,  he proclaimed his innocence.  Romero then leaned over him and asked for his forgiveness. With a faint smile, Aguilera nodded.  Then the executioner pressed the lever, and minutes later Aguilera was pronounced dead. At that point, the executioner Romero went into hysterics, and had to be transported to a cell, where he was attended by a physician. Davis, however, was reportedly unaffected.

The garrote was ordered left in Santiago’s jail, where several other condemned were waiting to be executed. Davis aided on a second execution and was pardoned as a reward.  Romero returned afterwords to Havana and he was also pardoned after two years of service and nine executions. He then applied to become a prison chaplain in the new Isle of Pines penitentiary (modeled after the one in Joliet, IL)  but was rejected for lack of qualifications. He then returned home to Eastern Cuba and became a farmer. His assistant in Havana, Enrique Pineda, another murderer serving a life sentence, took over in September of 1929, when he executed his own accomplice in the murder for which he had been charged.

The garrote vil was replaced by death by firing squad in 1935.

(sources: the Pittsburgh Gazette, The New York Times, and The Washington Post – American newspapers dutifully reported about Cuban executions in detail)


A U.S. racial view of Cubans at the turn of the 20th cent.

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, History, Images, Race No Comments »

Duke University Library’s digital collections includes a visual archive on the Emergence of Advertising in America, 1850-1920

Among the various card series that were included in Duke’s cigarettes at that time, there is one on “coins of all nations” that includes one on Cuba.  It is not dated, but it is probably pre-independence (the coin is described as being from Spain in circulation in Cuba), which means the cards are from some time between 1872 (beginning of the collection) and 1898. It is interesting that in contrast with Vera Kutzinski’s description of the young and sensual mulatta figure as typical of Cuban cigar images, the woman here presented as Cuban in U.S. tobacco is black and old…

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Images courtesy of Duke University’s Library and the John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History. These images in particular can be found HERE.

Who was Maurice Halperin?

Anthropological institutions, By Paul Ryer, History 3 Comments »

Robin Moore once suggested to me that a history of anthropology in Cuba–from its 19th century roots through the Revolution, as practiced by Cuban and international scholars alike–would be an extraordinary study, and I do see how this would be a fascinating, multi-faceted project.  In any case, one crucial moment for such a history is surely provided by the case of Oscar Lewis and his team of “anthropologists.”  I put “anthropologists” in quotes because whether or not they were spies, the Lewises were certainly more acting as oral historians than anthropologists in their Cuban project; methodologically their team was far, far from an ethnographic approach.

More recently, I came across this obscure article, by one Maurice Halperin, who apparently was a disaffected O.S.S. (i.e. C.I.A.) officer who lived and taught in Havana from 1962-1968, and who seemingly–as described in his article–had a personal role in the events surrounding the Oscar & Ruth Lewis affair.  Regardless of one’s read of that event, and despite the clear biases of the author (who seems so anti-revolutionary that one simply must wonder just how “disaffected” he really was with the U.S. intelligence apparatus even if he did teach at la Universidad de La Habana!) it might be interesting to add this perspective to the far more pro-Revolutionary voices of Douglas Butterworth and Ruth Lewis themselves.  But to give Halperin ANY credibility, I think we need to know more about his scholarship.  So, who was this Maurice Halperin?  Has anyone heard of him, or know Return to Havana or anything else he’s written?  What was his field?  What did he teach in Havana?  I know some of us have met Cubans who worked with the Lewises, have you ever meet anyone in Cuba who knew Halperin?

“Three Bags Full” by Hermer & May, 1941

By Paul Ryer, Consumption & material culture, History, Syllabi & pedagogy, Tourism No Comments »

Given that many of us earn our keep, at least in part, by teaching Anglophone undergraduate students about Cuba, I thought it would be of interest to share teaching successes.  So, please, if you have a good pedagogical strategy or reading you’re willing to share, post or send it to me to post.

Personally, I have had great luck with this short reading: “Three Bags Full,” by Consuelo Hermer & Marjorie May, Random House, NY, 1941, ch. 2.  (Unfortunately, had to lower the scan quality a bit to fit into ethnocuba’s media library; it is also available under the title “What to Wear” in the out of print book Havana: Tales of the City, ed. by Miller & Clark, 1996).

Taken from a 1941 travel guide for North American tourists, I’ve found that students–aside from the occasional one who takes the reading as a literal prescription of current Cuban fashion–not only are relieved to read something on the lighter side, but that ultimately the piece leads them to raise their own questions about the nature of US influence on pre-revolutionary Cuban culture.  For many undergraduates, then, this article moves indigestible concepts like “hegemony,” “colonialism” and “imperialism” into realms of couture, daily life, tourism, etc, in a way that follows the old dictum: “show, don’t tell.”   If you do try it, let me know how it works with your own students.

On Race and Identity in Colonial Cuba

By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant, History, new chapter/edited volume, Race No Comments »

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Professor Maria Elena Diaz, from UC-Santa Cruz’s History Department, just published the article “Conjuring Identities: Race, Nativeness, Local Citizenship and Royal Slavery on an Imperial Frontier (Revisiting El Cobre, Cuba)” in an edited volume on Race and Identity in Colonial Latin America, just released on Duke University Press.

The chapter is available for download HERE

Maria Elena Diaz is the author of  The Virgin, the King and the Royal Slaves of El Cobre: Negotiating Freedom in Colonial Cuba, 1670-1780 (Stanford Univ. Press, 2000).

You may also check out her webpage on El Cobre.

Archivocubano on Fundación Fernando Ortiz and Museo Montané

Anthropological institutions, Blogs, History, Universidad de La Habana No Comments »

This Italian site, Archivocubano, has a post on the first decade of the Fundación Fernando Ortiz, written a few years ago by Jesús Guanche.  And also a post on the history of the Museo Montané at the Universidad de La Habana, by Armando Rangel Rivero.  To date, I have not been able to find a direct URL for the museum (of, for that matter, for the Centro de Antropología in Cerro).  Does anyone have other links to/from/about these institutions?  If so, please please post them in a quick comment!

50 years of Revolution. Special Issues and Recent Ethnographies

Consumption & material culture, Cultural production, daily life, Gender & sexuality, Globalization, greater Cuba, Health, History, media, Miami, music, new article, new chapter/edited volume, Race, Religion, Sport, Tourism No Comments »

Journal of Latin American Studies

Latin American Perspectives

In addition you might want to check out the following recent publications:

* By Ruth Behar and Lucia Suárez, an edited volume: THE PORTABLE ISLAND: Cubans at Home in the World.  Palgrave 2008.

* By Ivor Miller, a book: Voice of the Leopard: African Secret Societies and Cuba, University Press of Mississippi.

* By Ariana Hernandez-Reguant:

Special guest edited issue of the Journal of Latin American Anthropology, including introduction (“Alternative Geographies”), and articles by Laurie Frederik Meer, P. Sean Brotherton, Kenneth Routon, and Helen Safa.

“Radio Taino and the Cuban Quest for Identi…que?“, in Doris Sommer’s Cultural Agency in the Americas, Duke University Press, 2006.

“Havana’s Timba. A Macho Sound for Black Sex.” In Deborah Thomas and Kamari Clarke. Globalization and Race. Duke University Press, 2006.

* By Kenneth Routon. “Conjuring the past: Slavery and the historical imagination in Cuba.”  American Ethnologist (p 632-649), Volume 35 Issue 4

* By Laurie Frederik MeerPlayback Theatre in Cuba: the Politics of Improvisation and Free Expression,” in The Drama Review, Winter 2007, Vol. 51, No. 4, Pages 106-120

* By P. Sean Brotherton.  “We have to think like capitalists but continue being socialists”: Medicalized subjectivities, emergent capital, and socialist entrepreneurs in post-Soviet Cuba.  American Ethnologist, Vol. 35, Issue 2, pp. 259-274.  June 2008.

* By Mette Berg:

Between Cosmopolitanism and the National Slot: Cuba’s Diasporic Children of the Revolution, Identities (vol. 16, issue 2), Pages 129 – 156.

“Homeland and belonging among Cubans in Spain.”  Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, Vol. 14 no. 2, (pp. 265-290)

* By Katrin Hansing, (2009). “South-South Migration and Transnational Ties between Cuba and Mozambique,” in Transnational Ties: Cities, Migrations, and Identities. M. P. Smith and J. Eade. New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers: 77-90.

* Even if you are already familiar with Todd Ramón Ochoa‘s article, “Versions of the Dead: Kalunga in Cuban Kongo Materiality,” in Cultural Anthropology Vol. 22, No. 4, November 2007, you should check out this link from C.A., which includes study questions and an embedded video clip.

*By Kristina Wirtz:

Her book is entitled Ritual, Discourse, and Community in Cuban Santería: Speaking a Sacred World University Press of Florida, 2007.  (only on hard cover).

See reviews: McIntosh, Janet. “(Book Review) Ritual, Discourse, and Community in Cuban Santería: Speaking a Sacred World. University of Florida Press, 2007.” by Kristina Wirtz. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology vol. 18(1) 2009: 163-4. And a review byElina Hartikainen (citation only, full-text not available), in the Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, Volume 13, Number 2, November 2008 , pp. 461-462(2). Also, here is another link to a review (again, citation only) by Paul Christopher Johnson in the Journal of Anthropological Research, vol. 64, no. 4.  If you know of other reviews, or have your own comments, please take a moment to leave an update or comment!

Kristina Wirtz, “Hazardous waste: the semiotics of ritual hygiene in Cuban popular religion,” in JRAI vol. 15, pp. 476-501, 2009.

Kristina Wirtz:  “Divining The Past: The linguistic reconstruction of “African” roots in diasporic ritual registers and songs,” in Journal of Religion in Africa Special Issue: “African diasporic religions.”  27(2): 240-272, 2007.  Introduced by Stephan Palmié.

Wirtz, K. (2007) Deep language and diasporic culture: Learning to speak the ‘tongue of the orichas’ in Cuban Santería. American Ethnologist 34(1): 108-126.  Her abstract:

“Enregistered memory and Afro-Cuban historicity in Santería’s ritual speech,” in Language & Communication special issue: “Temporalities of Text.” 27(3), 2007.

Finally, check out two related pieces by Wirtz, “Introduction: Ritual Unintelligibility” (pp. 401-407. Read introduction) and “Making sense of unintelligible messages: Co-construction of meaning in Santería rituals,” (435-462. Abstract) in a special issue of the journal Text & Talk on “Ritual Unintelligibility,” 27(4), 2007.

* By Tom Carter

(1)  “New Rules to the Old Game: Cuban Sport and State Legitimacy in the Post-Soviet Era,” in Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power. 15 (2): 194-215, 2008.

(2)“Pitén en la Plaza: Some preliminary considerations on spatializing culture in Cuba” in Image, Power and Space: Studies in Consumption and Identity. Alan Tomlinson and Jonathan M. Woodham (eds). Aachen: Meyer & Meyer. Pp. 97-112.

(3)  “Of Spectacular Phantasmal Desires: Tourism and the Cuban State’s Complicity in its Commodification of its Citizens,” in Leisure Studies. 27 (3): 241-257, 2008.

(4) “Family Networks, State Interventions and the Experiences of Cuban Transnational Sport Migration,” in International Review of the Sociology of Sport. 42 (4): 371-389, (2007).

(5) “A Relaxed State of Affairs?: On Leisure, Tourism, and Cuban Identity” in The Discipline of Leisure: Embodying Cultures of “Recreation”. Simon Coleman and Tamara Kohn (eds). Oxford: Berghahn, pp. 127-145 (2007).

* By Martin Holbraad:

Definitive evidence, from Cuban gods,” in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, special issue The Objects of Evidence,vol. 14, issue s1, April 2008. Based on evidence collected during fieldwork among practitioners of Afro-Cuban religion in Havana, this paper seeks ‘recursively’ to redefine the notion of anthropological evidence itself. It does so by examining ethnographically practitioners’ concern with the ‘evidence’ deities give (e.g. successful divinations, divine cures, etc.), by virtue of which people’s relationships with deities are cemented. To the extent that this indigenous concept of evidence is different from notions of evidence anthropologists take for granted in their own work, it occasions the opportunity to transform those very assumptions. But such a procedure is itself evidential – pertaining to the relationship between ethnography and theory. The paper sets out the virtues, both ethnographic and theoretical, of this circularity.

Thinking Through Things: Theorising Artefacts Ethnographically, ed. by Amiria Henare, Martin Holbraad and Sari Wastell.  Routledge 2007.  The volume, as well as this exchange about the book between Martin Holbraad and Daniel Miller, is surely of general interest to those of us with an interest in consumption, goods, and so-called material culture.  Additionally, Holbraad’s chapter, “The Power of Powder: Multiplicity and Motion in the Divinatory Cosmology of Cuban Ifá (or mana, again)” also ought to be of interest for many ethnocuba readers. The book is also reviewed at Savage Minds, here.

Roulette anthropology: the whole beyond holism,” in Journal of the Finnish Anthropological Society, 32 (2). pp. 29-47 (2007). The paper builds an argument about holism in anthropological theory by drawing an ethnographic contrast between divination and gambling in Cuba.  Outlining the contrasting modes of prediction in each case, it is shown that while diviners’ predictions draw on cosmological models of the world, gamblers’ seek to source the cosmos itself.  Their concern with going beyond cosmology is bound up with their orientation (obsessive sometimes) towards what they call ‘cábalas’ – attention-grabbing coincidences of everyday life.  A similar contrast can be drawn with regard to anthropological notions of ‘holism’.  Available versions of holism are ‘cosmological’ inasmuch as they pertain to the role of models in anthropology.  Nevertheless, anthropologists too are as concerned with accessing the cosmos, allowing ‘the field’ to speak for itself in ethnography.  Like the gamblers (and unlike colleagues in more disciplined disciplines), anthropologists find that it is only when they stop reasoning in terms of pre-conceived cosmologies that worlds begin to reveal themselves as such.  So anthropology goes beyond holism by becoming more holistic than it already thinks it is: from cosmology to the cosmos.  It is oriented towards the underbelly of reason par excellence, ventriloquising itself into the cosmos at ‘ethnographic moments’ – coincidences – that can only register as ‘alterity’.  So a defence of radical ‘holism’, it is argued, is also a defence of a radical ‘exoticism’.

Expending Multiplicity: Money in Cuban Ifá Cults,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute vol. 11 (2), pp. 231-254.  2005.

* By Maria Gropas

“Landscape, Revolution and Property Regimes in Rural Havana,” 2006. Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. 33 issue 2, pp. 248-277

The Repatriotization of Revolutionary Ideology and Mnemonic Landscape in Present-Day Havana,”  in Current Anthropology 48 (4), 2007. Includes commentaries by Virginia R. Domíguez, Nadine Fernandez, Martin Hall, Martin Holbraad, and Mona Rosendahl, as well as a reply by the author.  The conversation has an amplified on-line version, with additional color images, here.
*By Matthew Hill, “Re-Imagining Old Havana: World Heritage and the Production of Scale in Late Socialist Cuba” in Deciphering The Global: Its Scales, Spaces and Subjects, ed. by Saskia Sassen (2007).
* By Miguel de la Torre. 2003. La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami, University of California Press, by Miguel A. De La Torre. Reviewed Here by Laurie Frederik Meer’s in e-misférica.
* By Amalia Cabezas.  “The Eroticization of Labor in Cuba’s All-Inclusive Resorts: Performing Race, Class and Gender in the New Tourist Economy,” in Social Identities, Volume 12, Issue 5 September 2006 , pages 507 – 521.

* By Amy L. Porter, “Fleeting Dreams and Flowing Goods: Citizenship and Consumption in Havana Cuba” in PoLAR vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 134-149.  May 2008.
* By Noelle Stout.Feminists, Queers and Critics: Debating the Cuban Sex Trade,” in the Journal of Latin American Studies, vol 40, pp. 721-742 (2008).
* By Rogelio Martínez Furé. 2007. Eshu (oriki a mi mismo)  y otras descargas.
* By Valerio Simoni, “‘Riding’ Diversity: Cubans’/Jineteros‘ Uses of ‘Nationality-talks’ in the Realm of their Informal Encounters with Tourists” in Tourism Development: Growth, Myths and Inequalities, ed. by Peter M. Burns & Marina Novelli, CAB International, 2008, pp. 68-84.
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